management information system case study

Question: 1. In the case study, we referred to the systems being developed and used as decision support systems. However, we also identified various artificial intelligence (AI) technologies. How can a decision support system incorporate and use AI technologies such as pattern recognition? Answer: ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE (AI) tools and techniques can aid in the diagnosis of disease states and assessment of treatment outcomes, so AI can be used by a decision support system as pattern recognition to analyze healthcare data and generate a representation of knowledge and make a decision support.

One of this AI technologies tools is the Artificial Neural Networks which work much like the human brain and have the ability to learn from training data and store knowledge in the network. In the learning phase, it maps relation between inputs and the corresponding expected outputs. Neural networks are frequently used as diagnostics, and therefore it is important to have good generalization ability, that is, good performance in predicting results in response to unseen data.

Neural networks have found the majority of their applications in time-series prediction, signal processing, financial forecasting and especially in health care as pattern recognition. Question: 2. At the Mayo Clinic, patients are given opt-in and opt-out rights concerning whether or not their information is used in the system that determines the most appropriate therapies given the specific patient profile. So far 95 percent of the patients have opted to have their information included in the system. (This is the notion of opting in. )Why do you believe that 5 percent of the patients have opted out?

Would you opt in or opt out in this case? Please provide your reasoning. Answer: For me, I think the reason why the 5 percent of the patients have opted out because they want to secure their privacy. I think not all the people are willing to share or give information about them especially when it is personal. Maybe they don’t want to reveal or used by anyone their personal health records, maybe they are much ashamed in their past illness or health issues and they don’t trust other people especially systems to use or access their health profile.

But If I am in this case, or if I’m going to be their patient, I would probably choose opt-in because I know that this my health profiles are really needed for them to determine the appropriate therapies for me and of course it is also for my own benefits so I will allow their system to use my profile. Question: 3. In this case, demographic information such as ethnicity, gender, and age greatly impacts the quality of the decision support and analysis. The same could be argued for the predictive analytics system used by the Richmond police in this chapter’s first case study.

Why would some people find it acceptable to use such demographic data in this case (for medical purposes) and not in the first case (for predicting crime, its location, and its timing)? Answer: For me the demographic data is really meant or better to use for medical purposes than for predicting crime. “Woman ages from 60-80 are prone to osteoporosis. ” is an example of what I always heard about health. I believe that there are diseases for specific age or gender, for example uterus cancer is for woman only and alzheimer’s disease is for adult and not for children.

And for ethnicity, I think people’s health will also be affected from their environment, the way they live or the food they eat. So this demographic data is really used in medical purpose. And for crime, I don’t agree that because of age, gender and ethnicity, the police or their system can predict if a person will going to be a criminal or not. Of course there a lot of people who commit crimes everyday so they cannot identify by gender because both man or a woman do crimes.

Not also by age because nowadays even minor age people also commit crime and especially ethnicity has no part because we cannot judge people by their culture or beliefs or what ethnic groups they were belong. Question: 4. One of the most popular and widely used application areas for expert system is medicine. What role could an expert system play in helping the Cleveland Clinic identity patients susceptible to abdominal aortic aneurysms? What sort of rules would the expert system include? Answer:

An expert system for health care administration is engineered to automate knowledge-based data used in the field of health care. An expert system provides input scenarios, problem-solving mechanisms and output data based on a review of common practices and hospital support functions. Expert systems can also emulate human behavior and logic patterns to answer questions or solve a problem. An expert system for health care administration can create “what if” scenarios that allow doctors, nurses, researchers and patients to access information on any medical procedure, research project or administrative function.

Health care information can be accessed on a “real-time” basis, which means that data is constantly updated when changes or new information is loaded into the system, So expert system can help to identity patients susceptible to abdominal aortic aneurysms by using knowledge-based data because it provides input scenarios, problem-solving mechanisms and output data based on a review of common practices and hospital support functions. Expert systems can also emulate human behavior and logic patterns to answer questions or solve a problem.

Based on what I read about expert system, they use If then rules; so maybe they can use this sample rules: * IF, they evaluate information THEN they can identify patient with this disease. * IF, they can now identify them THEN they can now predict the patients and the level of risk * IF, they identify the patients and their risk THEN they can now identify patients who need surgery or other treatment. And so many rules to follow… Question: How might a monitoring – and – surveillance agent be used for patients in a medical environment?

How can health care providers take advantage of the capabilities of an information agent to stay abreast of the latest medical trends and treatments? Answer: Based on what I researched Surveillance and monitoring are basic elements of programmes for both comprehensive reproductive health care (RH) and general health care. Because The Aims of health care Monitoring agent are to: * identify high-risk groups * identify the most serious and/or the most prevalent conditions; and * monitor the trends of these conditions and the implementation and impact of intervention.

Surveillance and monitoring of both health status and service delivery involve defining measureable programme objectives (what the programme will strive to achieve) and using indicators to measure progress toward achieving those objectives. An indicator is a measurement that, when compared to either a standard or the desired level of achievement, provides information regarding a health outcome or a management process. Indicators are measurements that can be repeated over time to track progress toward achievement of objectives.

So it’s true that Surveillance and monitoring agent can be used for patients in medical environment. Health care providers take advantage of the capabilities of information agent because this information agent is the one who do the researching for the important and related information about health and this information are needed by Healthcare providers to be updated about the latest medical trends and treatments. References: http://what-when-how. com/medical-informatics/artificial-intelligence-techniques-in-medicine-and-healthcare/ http://www. ehow. com/about_5845467_expert-used-health-care-administration. html

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