FIT – BUS 5450
Assignment 1: Research Analysis and Proposal
The Affect of Emotional Intelligence on Effective Leadership “Emotional intelligence is the ability to manage one’s own and others’ in order to guide one’s behavior and achieve goals” (Salovey, & Mayer, 2005). In simple words, EI is the ability to perceive, control, and evaluate emotions, that is, to regulate your own emotions, and the ability to cheer up or calm down another person. Building on the work of Mayor and Salovey (1997) and others, Goleman (1998) further suggested that there are five critical pillars or competencies of EI, namely self-awareness; self-regulation; self-motivation; social awareness (empathy); and social skills.
According to Merriam-Webster website (2012), an emotion is “a conscious mental reaction (anger or fear) subjectively experienced as a strong feeling usually directed toward a specific object and typically accompanied by physiological and behavioral changes in the body”. Emotional intelligence is also referred to as emotional quotient (EQ). An individual with high EQ is able to perceive others’ emotions and react to them appropriately. EI has the biggest impact on success, job satisfaction or even in daily lives (Bressert, 2007). The complex nature of emotional intelligence and its imperative role in wider social affairs has given rise to the examination of its relevance to effective management and leadership. Increasing awareness of the necessity of emotional intelligence within the workplace is evident in numerous studies and research relevant to this area over the recent decades. The link between successful management and emotional intelligence is apparent as it can be seen that high emotional awareness and an ability to manage these emotions highlights three key aspects essential to good leadership: the provision of sustenance for the development of high quality interpersonal relationships with employees, improvement of the decision-making and problem-solving process by factoring in emotional consideration, and the creation of organizational awareness and identity through inspiring and constructing a collective sense of objectives. This paper will give a general overview of emotional intelligence. In particular, it is intended to clarify the reason why emotional intelligence (EI) is so vital in the workplace nowadays and will help to construct a deeper understanding of emotional intelligence affect on effective leadership. Emotional intelligence can be important because it has its positive advantages on personal, social, academic, and workplace success.
Recently, increasing numbers of scholars have argued that emotional intelligence (EI) is a core variable that affects the performance of leaders. Introduction Emotional intelligence (EI) is an emerging topic for psychological, educational, and management researchers and consultants. Many organizations have sent their employees to various EI training courses offered by management consultants (inclusive of the writer). Proponents of the EI concept argue that EI affects one’s physical and mental health as well as one’s career achievements (Goleman, 1998). Some emerging leadership theories also imply that emotional and social intelligence are even more important for leaders and managers because cognitive and behavioral complexity and flexibility are important characteristics of competent leaders (Boal & Whitehead, 1992). However, there is little empirical evidence in the literature about the relationship between the EI of both leaders (and followers) and their job outcomes. One of the reasons for this gap may be the lack of a psychologically sound yet practically short measure of EI that can be used in leadership and management studies.
Designing a project to develop such a measure and providing exploratory evidence, high in validity and reliability, concerning the effect of the EI of leaders and subsequent job outcomes would form a practical yet challenging thesis for research work. Strong communication and teamwork are undoubtedly the fundamental elements of successful workplace management and it is through good communication that a sense of trust and intimacy can be nurtured, hence creating the basis for and developing the strength of interpersonal bonds. According to the Salovey, Mayer and Caruso four-branch model of emotional intelligence, it is through the establishment of these strong interpersonal relationships that allow for leaders to generate motivation and instill optimism and enthusiasm within his/her followers. Being able to accurately appraise and express emotions ensures the effective communication between individuals and thus provides them with a deeper understanding of the people they work with (Carmeli, 2013, p791).
By creating an atmosphere of cooperation and having an improved perception of emotion, followers will be more supportive of a leader’s decisions and thus be more obliged to appreciate and promote the organization’s objectives (Zeidner et al, 2004, p387). The ability to communicate effectively with followers allows a leader to connect on an individual basis and to inspire and share collective visions with the team. Goleman cited in Lam and O’Higgins (2010, p151), “Empathy… is the fundamental people skill.” showing the concept of ‘social intelligence’ overlapping with that of emotional awareness and the importance of understanding and sympathizing with the concerns, requirements and unspoken feelings of others. As high quality interpersonal relationships significantly enhance group cohesiveness and collaboration (Lam and O’Higgins, 2010, p156), it is evident that empathy contributes to successful management of others, and an emotionally healthy workplace environment is fostered through a leader’s maintenance of positive relationships and understanding of the organizational members’ emotional needs. The ability to accurately assess and respond to others’ feelings enables a leader to implement significant change within an organization and to influence the emotions and opinions of its members (George, 2000, p1044). The positive correlation between transformational leadership and emotional intelligence is proven in the study conducted by Younghee et al (2011) whereby the characteristic traits of transformational leaders, such as active listening, inspiring motivation, sharing of ideas and values and individualized consideration, are exhibited in leaders high in emotional intelligence. Emotions are actively involved in the formation of judgment and the management of one’s own emotions is essential to effective leadership as it is through an emotional self-understanding that an empathic approach can be taken when managing an employee who has been confronted with an emotionally challenging situation.
These leaders are able to consequently predict the emotional responses of employees in different circumstances or events; this capacity to recognize and use emotions and to respond appropriately directs the cognitive processes in decision-making and problem solving, hence allowing for emotionally informed decisions to be made and, by extension, allowing for positive and creative organizational outcomes. By understanding the emotional concerns of the employees, a manager is well equipped to address their issues and provide individualized support. According to Frigda (1988), as cited by George (2000), diversity in emotional self-awareness is also an important aspect of leadership effectiveness as it enables the capacity to register negative feelings caused by certain issues, hence redirecting a manager’s attention towards them. By bringing immediate consideration to these issues and noticing the initial signs of employees’ emotional disturbance, the emotional climate of an organization can be assessed and hence workplace problems can be eliminated and avoided. Positive emotions foster creativity, allowing flexibility in decision-making and the consideration of alternate scenarios to a solution. Developing a shared vision for the organization is a crucial element of effective leadership (George 2000, p1039) and it is through the ability to inspire and motivate employees that a manager can encourage movement towards a collective sense of objectives and goals to promote organizational outcomes.
The utilization of emotional language through charisma can articulate an appealing vision for the future, and thus persuade followers to transcend their personal interests for the collective organizational interest. Transformational leadership, considered the most effective leadership style (Lam and O’Higgins 2010, p153), can be established by four components – idealized influence (charisma), inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation and individualized consideration – where all four dimensions are highly correlated with the understanding and management of emotions. As the name suggests, transformational leaders transform the needs and values of followers so that they are receptive to and supportive of the leader’s goals, while providing individual consideration (Ashkanasy and Daus 1993, p81).
Values are infused with emotion and when those of the employees and organization are attuned to each other, a common identity and shared ideologies are created. The promotion of a vision or set of values which is consistent with both that of the employees and organization fosters the employees’ commitment to the organization and, in turn, employees are able to appreciate their personal contribution, causing an increase in job satisfaction due to elevated levels of self-efficacy. Continued research on the assessment and development of emotional and social intelligence competencies represents an opportunity to further both theoretical and applied applications of behavioral science to the management of human capital. Listed below are summaries of the three scholarly researches done on emotional intelligence. The Science of Emotional intelligence – Mayer and Salovey
Mayer and Salovey proposed a model of emotional intelligence to address a growing need in psychology for a framework to organize the study of individual differences in abilities related to emotion. This theoretical model motivated the creation of the first ability-based tests of emotional intelligence. Dr. Peter Salovey and Dr. John D. Mayer first published their work on these concepts in 1990 (Mayer, DiPaolo, & Salovey, 1990; Salovey & Mayer, 1990). They later published a revised theory of emotional intelligence (Mayer & Salovey, 1997). This revised theory further elaborated the existence of four related areas of emotional intelligence. They called these areas “branches” to illustrate that the abilities were arranged in a hierarchical order from the least psychologically complex to the most psychologically complex. Mayer and Salovey defined these specific abilities as the ability to perceive emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist thought, to understand emotions and emotional knowledge, and to reflectively regulate emotions so as to promote emotional and intellectual growth (Mayer & Salovey, 1997).
Here is a summary of this four-branch model of emotional intelligence: Perceiving and Identifying Emotions – the ability to recognize how you and those around you are feeling. Using Emotions to Facilitate Thought – the ability to generate emotion, and then reason with this emotion. Understanding Emotions – the ability to understand complex emotions and emotional “chains,” and how emotions transition from one stage to another. Managing Emotions – the ability to manage emotions in yourself and in others. The MSCEITTM is a performance test of emotional intelligence. A performance test provides an estimate of a person’s ability by having them solve problems. The MSCEITTM asks you to solve problems about emotions, or problems that require the use of emotion. Working with emotional intelligence – Daniel Goleman
In contrast to Salovey and Mayer (1990), Goleman (1998) proposes a theory of EI that is performance based. Specifically, he relates EQ to 20 competencies in four clusters of general abilities. The four clusters consist of: Self-Awareness, Social Awareness, Self-Management, and Relationship Management. Each of the four clusters is seen as distinct from cognitive abilities and each other. The Self-Awareness cluster is defined as knowing what one feels. The Social Awareness cluster encompasses the competency of empathy and the ability to read nonverbal cues. Third, the Self-Management cluster relates to the ability to regulate distressing emotional responses and to inhibit emotional impulsivity. Relationship Management, the fourth cluster, is defined by one’s ability to understand or influence the emotions of others. Two measurement tools are based on the Goleman model:
1.The Emotional Competency Inventory (ECI), which was created in 1999, and the Emotional and Social Competency Inventory (ESCI), which was created in 2007.
2.The Emotional Intelligence Appraisal, which was created in 2001 and which can be taken as a self-report or 360-degree assessment. Goleman includes a set of emotional competencies within each construct of EI. Emotional competencies are not innate talents, but rather learned capabilities that must be worked on and can be developed to achieve outstanding performance. Goleman posits that individuals are born with a general emotional intelligence that determines their potential for learning emotional competencies. Emotions and Leadership: The Role of Emotional Intelligence – Jennifer M. George This paper suggests that feelings (moods and emotions) play a central role in the leadership process. More specifically, it is proposed that emotional intelligence, the ability to understand and manage moods and emotions in the self and others, contributes to effective leadership in organizations. Four major aspects of emotional intelligence, the appraisal and expression of emotion, the use of emotion to enhance cognitive processes and decision-making, knowledge about emotions, and management of emotions, are described.
Then, I propose how emotional intelligence contributes to effective leadership by focusing on five essential elements of leader effectiveness: development of collective goals and objectives; instilling in others an appreciation of the importance of work activities; generating and maintaining enthusiasm, confidence, optimism, cooperation, and trust; encouraging flexibility in decision making and change; and establishing and maintaining a meaningful identity for an organization.
In doing the research study, participants from organizations employing a hierarchical structure would be considered for investigation. This will form of structure would have leadership at different levels and the affect of emotional intelligence at each level of leadership could be measured. Organizations high in diversity would also provide a good reference for EI test. This would factor in a measure of EI required across an organization rich in employees with varying cultural origin. For this study I would use the 360-degree version of the leadership dimensions questionnaire (LDQ) and instrument with approximately 100 questions. I would offer various methods for completing the LDQ, such as online, email and hard copy. Confidentially of completed questionnaires is important ensuring that the privacy of participants was preserved and that this was clear to the participants as well. The survey would be used to assess their emotional intelligence and to collect demographic data (age, gender, education). I would also utilize a behavioral measure of EI, the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, which research indicates to be a more reliable and valid instrument. The creation of clear hypothesis to test against would need to be developed. Some potential hypotheses are that:
1- Emotional intelligence and performance are positively related.
2- Emotional intelligence will explain more variance in performance as a leader of a more diverse organization.
3- Emotional intelligence will explain more variance in performance as a leader than managerial competence.
4- The strongest positive relationship between emotional intelligence and performance is at the top of the organization.
Using statistics, the data collected would be analyzed and the mean, median, standard deviation and variance for “Identifying emotions”, “ Using Emotions”, “Understanding Emotions” and “Managing Emotions” would be established. By doing in-depth data comparisons, identification of relationships between various data that will present an understanding about the responses, and guide towards correlations of the results to the hypotheses.
The results of the study are expected to provide support that there is a positive relationship between emotional intelligence and performance as a leader. There should also be a partial support for the proposition that there is a positive relationship between Emotional intelligence and lower tier leadership as required for interaction on the ‘shop floor’ level. The higher in the hierarchy, the less emotional intelligence will be practiced. It is also expected to show no or little support for the proposition that emotional intelligence explains more variance in performance as a leader than intellectual competence, and strong positive relationship between emotional intelligence and performance is at the top of the organization. Conclusion
Therefore, through analysis of published scholarly research papers, of the relationship of emotional intelligence and leadership, it is evident that the ability to empathize and communicate emotional concerns promotes the building of high quality interpersonal relationships in the workplace. Emotional self-awareness, a thorough understanding and management of feelings, and the utilization of the four dimensions of the transformational leadership style can allow for informed decision-making processes, inspiration for developing a sense of unity and collective goals, commitment to an organization, and fostering of an emotionally healthy workplace environment. Thus, high emotional intelligence is crucial in the successful leadership of a workplace. References:
Ashkanasy, N.M. & Daus, C.S. (2002). Emotion in the workplace: The new challenge for managers. The Academy of Management Executive, 16(1), pp.76–86. Boal, K. B. & Whitehead, C. J. (1992). A critique and extension of stratified systems perspective. In R. L. Phillips & J. G. Hunt (Eds.), Strategic leadership: A multiorganizational-level perspective (pp. 237–255). Westport, CT: Quorum. Bressert, S. (2007). What is Emotional Intelligence (EQ)? Psych Central. Retrieved on September 15, 2013, from http://psychcentral.com/lib/what-is-emotional-intelligence-eq/0001037 Carmeli, A. (2003). The relationship between emotional intelligence and work attitudes, behavior and outcomes: An examination among senior managers. Journal of Managerial Psychology. 18 (8), 788-813. Frijda, N.H. (1988). The laws of emotion.
American Psychologist, 43, 349±358. George, J.M. (2000). Emotions and Leadership: The Role of Emotional Intelligence. Human Relations, 53(8), pp.1027–1055. Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books Lam, C.S., & O’Higgins, Eleanor R.E., (2010). Enhancing employee outcomes: The interrelated influences of managers’ emotional intelligence and leadership style. Leadership & Organization Development Journal. 33 (2), 149-174. Salovey, P., & Mayer, J.D. (2005). The Science of Emotional intelligence: Current Directions in Psychological Science 14, no. 6, pp. 281-85. YoungHee Hur, Peter T. van den Berg, Celeste P.M. Wilderom. (2011). Transformational leadership as a mediator between emotional intelligence and team outcomes. The Leadership Quarterly. 22 (4), 1027-1055. Zeidner, M., Matthews, G. & Roberts, R.D. (2004). Emotional Intelligence in the Workplace: A Critical Review. Applied Psychology, 53(3), pp.371–399.