Leadership VS Management Introduction There is the age old question of what is the difference between a manager and a leader? Most people will say that you can’t be a manager without being a leader. Leadership and management are an ongoing development. This search for the characteristics or traits of leaders has been ongoing for centuries. Some people believe they go hand in hand and some believe they are two complete different things. This continues development had resulted in many different theories over the centuries.
In this paper we will discuss in detail, the most common and recent theories and what each one means as well as well as what is it that leaders and managers do, can leaders and managers be one in the same. I will also explain the difference between managers and leaders. Definition The definition for leadership is the action of leading a group of people or an organization. Another common definition for leadership is as a process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task.
Management is defined in the business and organizational role as the act of getting people together to accomplish desired goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controlling an organization. History A Timeline of Management and Leadership 1880 – Scientific Management “In the past man was first. In the future the system will be first. ” – Frederick Taylor 1929 – Taylorism 1932 – The Hawthorne Studies Elton Mayo becomes the first to question the behavioral assumptions of scientific management.
The studies concluded that human factors were often more important than physical conditions in motivating employees to greater productivity. 1946 – Organization Development Social scientist Kurt Lewin launches the Research Center for Group Dynamics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His contributions in change theory, action research, and action learning earn him the title of the “Father of Organization Development:” the systematic application of behavioral science knowledge at various levels (group, intergroup, and total organization) to bring about planned change. 949 – Sociotechnical Systems Theory A group of researchers from London’s Tavistock Institute of Human Relations, led by Eric Trist, studied a South Yorkshire coal mine in 1949. Their research leads in the development of the Sociotechnical Systems Theory which considers both the social and the technical aspects when designing jobs. It marks a 180-degree departure from Frederick Taylor’s scientific management. There are four basic components to sociotechnical theory: * environment subsystem * social subsystem * technical subsystem * organizational design. 1954 – Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory is published in his book Motivation and Personality. This provides a framework for gaining employees’ commitment. 1954 – Leadership/Management Drucker writes The Practice of Management and introduces the 5 basic roles of managers. He writes: The first question in discussing organization structure must be: What is our business and what should it be? Organization structure must be designed so as to make possible the attainment of objectives of the business for five, ten, fifteen years hence. ” 1959 – Hygiene and Motivational Factors
Frederick Herzberg developed a list of factors which are closely based on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, except it more closely related to work. Hygiene factors must be present in the job before motivators can be used to stimulate the workers. 1960 – Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y principles influence the design and implementation of personnel policies and practices. Late 1960s – Action Learning An Unheralded British academic was invited to try out his theories in Belgium — Action Learning — it leads to an upturn in Belgian’s economy. Unless your ideas are ridiculed by experts they are worth nothing. the British academic Reg Revens, creator of action learning: L = P + Q ([L] Learning occurs through a combination of programmed knowledge [P] and the ability to ask insightful questions [Q]) 1964 – Management Grid Robert Blake and Jane Mouton develop a management model that conceptualizes management styles and relations. Their Grid uses two axis. “Concern for people” is plotted using the vertical axis and “Concern for task” is along the horizontal axis. The notion that just two dimensions can describe a managerial behavior has the attraction of simplicity. 1978 – Performance Technology
Tom Gilbert publishes Human Competence: Engineering Worthy Performance. It describes the behavioral-engineering model which become the bible of performance technology. Gilbert wrote that accomplishment specification is the only logical way to define performance requirements. Accomplishments are the best starting points for developing performance standards. In addition, accomplishments are the best tools for the development of performance-based job descriptions as they allow management to describe the measurement that is important to the organization, specific to the position, and observable 1978 – Excellence 990 – Learning Organization Peter Senge popularized the Learning Organization in The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization. He describes the organization as an organism with the capacity to enhance its capabilities and shape its own future. A learning organization is any organization (e. g. school, business, government agency) that understands itself as a complex, organic system that has a vision and purpose. It uses feedback systems and alignment mechanisms to achieve its goals. It values teams and leadership throughout the ranks. He called for five disciplines: * System Thinking Personal Mastery * Mental Models * Shared Vision * Team Learning 1995 – Ethics On December 11, 1995 a fire burned most of Malden Mills to the ground and put 3,000 people out of work. Most of the 3,000 thought they were out of work permanently. CEO Aaron Feuerstein says, “This is not the end” — he spent millions keeping all 3,000 employees on the payroll with full benefits for 3 months until he could get another factory up and running. Why? He answers, “The fundamental difference is that I consider our workers an asset, not an expense. ” Related concept — Ethos and Leadership. 000 – Business Process Management (BPM) This is actually a slow advance in process management that has the following roots: * Record Management * Workflow – 1970 * Business Process Re-engineering (BPR) – 1990 * Business Process Management (BPM) – 2000 Similarities/ Differences Table 1. A Comparison of Management and Leadership Competencies. Management ProducesOrder & Consistency| Leadership ProducesChange & Movement| • Planning and Budgeting• Establishing agendas• Setting timetables• Allocating resources| • Establishing Direction• Creating a vision• Clarifying the big picture• Setting strategies | •
Organizing and Staffing• Provide structure• Making job placements• Establishing rules and procedures | • Aligning People• Communicating goals• Seeking commitment• Building teams and coalitions | • Controlling and Problem Solving• Developing incentives• Generating creative solutions• Taking corrective action | • Motivating and Inspiring• Inspiring and energize• Empowering subordinates• Satisfying unmet needs | ttp://www. nwlink. com/~donclark/history_management/management. html http://guides. wsj. com/management/developing-a-leadership-style/what-is-the-difference-between-management-and-leadership/ http://www3. telus. net/public/pdcoutts/leadership/LdrVsMngt. htm http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Leadership http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Management http://www. ca. uky. edu/agc/pubs/elk1/elk1103/elk1103. pdf