Read Chapter 4, pages 67 – 92, answer the following questions and submit them to your instructor. 1.
What practices resulted from a shortage of labor in the American colonies?
2. As superintendent, what innovations did Alexander Maconochie institute at the penal colony of Norfolk Island in 1840?
3. What was Sir Walter Crofton’s contribution to the development of parole in the United States?
4. What is the connection between the Elmira Reformatory and the development of parole?
5. What was the connection between the great faith in science and the medical model?
6. What is “just deserts” and what are the criticisms of this approach?
7. What is determinate sentencing with wide discretion?
8. Explain “truth in sentencing.
9. What is presumptive sentencing?
10. How does the indeterminate sentence differ from the determinate sentence?
Critical Thinking Exercise: 1. Do we entrust the decrease of prison populations, reduction of sentencing disparity, and risk management of criminal offenders to judges, prison officials, or parole boards? Which do you believe will be the most effective and efficient? Explain your answer and submit them to your instructor.